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A casino, or gaming establishment, is a publicly-accessible, legal and controlled place that offers gambling, usually by chance (the "casino games" and "table games").

In all countries, casinos are regulated from the moment they openly trade in money games, and are in fact required to pay a levy and various forms of taxes to the government.

In general, access to the games room is forbidden for minors and therefore identification is required. Some casinos also have specific dress regulations.

In 2017, casinos accounted for 26% of the world's gaming revenues, with bets leading 37% of the total.

Casino History

The word casino
In Italian, "casino" means "small house": in the 16th century, it was a secluded, quiet place in Veneto, Lombardy or Tuscany, far from the city centre, suitable for retirement, rest and for notables. In Venice, from that time on, the reduced ("reduced") is the space within a house that is specifically reserved for corporate games and/or money : it is the "games room". This word has given rise to "redoubt": in the next century, fears were flashed in Vienna, in Spa; but also "vaux-halls", for example in London around 1770, where entertainment and pleasure were found; and there is also the "bank", which gives the German expression Spielbank ("cino"). But it was under British influence that the term casino finally came to be known from the 1780s to 1790s, because travel to Italy was fashionable: it was understood as a "gentlemen's club", where men actually met in part to play cards, pharaoh, or the libi. In 1806, a travel guide reported a Casino-Gesellschaft in Aix-la-Chapelle, as well as other private companies specializing in money games called "new fear" or "casino". The word casino, not even in the sense of "holiday house" — and sometimes "holiday" — but of money games, is used in the common use of French around 1850.

From Venice to Monte Carlo
Traditionally, history has held that one of the first casinos was opened in Venice around 1638, derived from the baratteria, an underground card game area: at that time, gambling was permitted in the full day and only at the time of the carnival. Marco Dandolo, a member of a distinguished Venetian family, accepted the charge of opening a reduced public in his palace, subject to payment of a fee to the doge. It was closed in November 1774, when corruption settled there.

Meanwhile, fears and other banks had multiplied throughout Europe: from the mid-th century onwards, Milan was marked by the opening of a "basket bank", which was used to finance the expenses related to lyrical theatre. The idea of the "opera casino" will be a long fire since Brussels, then Vienna, took over from 1745 to 1750. The silver games also arrive at spas: Bath in England would, as early as 1702, be the first resort to combine cure and gambling under the aegis of Beau Nash (en), who was ruined by a new regulation that fell in 1745 which banned all public gambling on behalf of the British Parliament. The continent has been recovering British customers and opened up rooms in Spa, Aix-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden, Ems, where a game farmer was even named in 1784.

France des Lumières is profoundly opposed to this type of public institution. A persistent myth is that the Royal Palace has become the reception hall for silver games under the Regency (1715-1723). No doubt clandestine, it remains that one of the high-ranking figures of the state at that time was John Law, who was said to have made a fortune by studying the games of money in Venice. Under the Executive Board, however, the Royal Palace is actually the meeting place for all tripod lovers. In 1799, the nine silver houses under the authority of the "Games' Guild" were located in this district. The law of June 24, 1806, if it prohibits any gambling house in the Empire, the Minister of Police only permits mineral water cities and during the curative season to open such establishments. In Paris itself, about ten houses were tolerated, but in 1836, a financial law abolished the farm of games. The fans and staff (coupiers, cashiers, game bankers...) then turned to the water cities, especially the Rhine. The Chabert, Bénazet and Blanc made a fortune. One of them, François Blanc, settled in Monaco. At the beginning of the Second Empire, the concept of casino resurfaced, with great publicity, but most of these early experiences failed: the French Riviera is not fashionable, and Biarritz is still too far away. However, it was in this last city that Benito R. de Monfort built an establishment in November 1856. It was inaugurated in August 1858, and attracted dignitaries from the French Empire, Spanish, Portuguese and German aristocrats5. Around 1863-1864, the train finally served Nice. The Society of Sea Baths is created. All these casinos located in France will also benefit from the laws of repression in Prussia, which will totally ban gambling houses in 1868 and in 1872 throughout the territory of the German Empire. In 1877, only Monte Carlo's casino and Spa's Redoute (Belgium) remained in Europe. As a result, one of the most common languages in the casino environment will be French, and until World War II: the banker, the dealer, used expressions such as "nothing goes away", "games are made".

In the sixteenth century, roulette spread throughout Europe and then to the United States, becoming one of the most famous and popular casino games. When the German government abolished the gambling, the Blanca family settled in one of the last two casinos remaining operational in Europe in Monte Carlo, where members set up the European elite's "Lament Wall of the Game." It is a small wheel in the wheels are here years over the first U.S exports to the server of the game with a doubling of the wheel of the United States 0 is dominant. A minority of players now consider roulette to be the "king of casino games", probably because the game was long associated with the chic side inherent in the nights of Monte Carlo, where notable artists, adventurers, arrived and half-worldly beauties intersected. A legend tells that the real estate developer and businessman François Blanc negotiated with the devil to obtain the secrets of roulette. Legend is based on the fact that the sum of all numbers on the roulette wheel, from 1 to 36, is 666, which is the number of the Beast.

To Las Vegas
In the United States, the first silver games rooms were salons. Their development has concentrated in four major cities, New Orleans, Saint Louis, Chicago and San Francisco, and these areas are like trippings, speakeasies. Because the legal situation at the federal and state levels remains vague and largely influenced by puritanic leagues. At the beginning of the 20th century, betting became illegal and banned by federal legislation. Gambling is only accepted on a case-by-case basis: so, are they tolerated in Atlantic City before 1914, then during the prohibition period, and also in Nevada from 1931. In fact, in the face of repression, the Americans helped turn Las Vegas into the world's capital of gambling until 1959; after 1960, and the closing of Cuban casinos in Havana by the Castilian regime, Las Vegas6 is booming again. In 1978, New Jersey again allowed bets in Atlantic City, which is now the second largest city in the United States in terms of legal bets, after Las Vegas.

In the Rest of the World
Macao is authorized by the Portuguese state to open gambling houses from 1931; likewise, some Chinese casinos become mythical thanks to the cinema (Shanghai Gesture (1941), by Josef von Sternberg). In France, roulette was legalized from 1933, outside Monaco. Between 1924 and 1936, fascist Italy granted franchises to four establishments. In 1933, the Nazis reopened Baden-Baden but turned Berlin into a city forbidden to gambling.

After 1945
In 1960, Cuba banned all gambling. The United Kingdom voted in 1960 a liberal law and Brighton, among others, became the meeting of the players. The casinos are legalized in the Netherlands (1975), Spain (1977), Denmark (1979). Under Ronald Reagan, American Indian reserves are allowed to open casinos. The only countries that prohibit these institutions are those that place their constitutions under the rule of the Koranic law.

In the 1990s, online or downloadable virtual casinos were developed.

Major Casinos in the World

In America
In the United States The world's capital of gambling is Las Vegas (Nevada), but other cities are important game centers, such as Atlantic City (New Jersey), Biloxi (Mississippi) or Reno (Nevada).

In several states casinos are under the responsibility of the Amerindian people following the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 240 tribes7 out of 562 play money games. The main states concerned are:
California (with Morongo Casino)
Connecticut (with Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun)
Oklahoma City
New York City

In Asia
Macao is booming: for a few years, this Chinese peninsula has attracted Las Vegas investors who are eager to conquer the Chinese and Asian markets in general.

In Europe
The largest casino is located in Estoril, Portugal, 18 km from Lisbon. The most attractive cities for big and big players are London and Monte Carlo (Casino de Monte-Carlo, the largest casino in the Principality). The first modern casino on the continent, La Redoute, was inaugurated in Spa (south-east Belgium) in 1771 under the initiative of the co-citizens, Gerard de Leau and Lambert Xhrouet. It included theatres, ballrooms and games.

There are also several important casino regions, including:
Lake Geneva basin, which brings together French and Swiss players;
the French Riviera, whose establishments have grown around the growth of Monaco casinos;
sites further east of the continent such as Nova Gorica that develop real leisure complexes around casinos.

In France
The law of 5 January 1988 states that the opening of casinos is permitted in tourist areas with more than 500,000 inhabitants, subject to certain conditions and with the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior.

French casinos
There are 196 establishments, the largest of which is in Enghien-les-Bains in the north of Paris, with the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region being the best equipped with some 20 establishments in France.

The first structures in France were created in the 18th century, when the first spa resorts were opened in 1806 and only during the spa season. This is to offer the lucky spa customers new forms of entertainment while preserving the poorest families from the temptation of the game.

The 1919 law prohibits the operation of a physical casino within a 100 km radius of Paris, a restriction still in force today except for the city of Enghien-les-Bains, which has been the subject of an exception since 1931.

The 1959 Decree states that "it must be an institution with three distinct activities: entertainment, food and games, brought together under a single direction without any of them being asserted".

French game circles
Game circles are associations governed by the 1901 Act of 1947 by a decree whose surplus budgets must feed charitable circles.

In Paris, 14 of the fifteen circles have closed since 2007 after money laundering and extortion cases: the Wagram Game Circle, the Eldo, Concorde, Gaillon, Industry, Haussmann or the Aviation Club of France. These circles were reportedly attributed to Corsican families after the Liberation in recognition of their investment in the Resistance. A bill tabled in the Council of Ministers on August 3, 2016 proposes to remove them to replace them with more structured and controlled clubs.

In Belgium
There are 9 casinos in Belgium: in Brussels, Chaudfontaine, Namur, Dinant, Spa, Ostend, Blankenberge, Knokke and Middelkerke. Online casinos
In 2012, the Belgian gambling commission began distributing licenses for online gambling sites. Since that date, it is legal to play on a website of an online casino in Belgium. There are a maximum of 9 casinos and 180 online gaming rooms

Board of Gaming
The Belgian Gaming Commission is responsible for regulating and controlling the Belgian casino world, both online and offline. It also acts as an advisory body to the government and parliament that base their recommendations on voting on the necessary gambling laws

For online gambling, there are 3 different licenses. Each license is subject to specific conditions and determines the gambling that can be offered.

The following three types of online gaming licenses are available:
License A +: or "Online Casino Games"
B+ License: or "Online Games Room"
FA+ license: or "Bookmakers Online"

In Switzerland
There are several land casinos in Switzerland. The most popular are: Grand Casino Luzern, Stadtcasino Basel, Grand Casino Basel, Grand Casino Bern, the Casino de Barrière de Montreux

A casino license is issued in Switzerland following a special request from the Federal Commission for Gambling Houses (FCC). Depending on the type of service offered, there are two levels of accreditation:
Type A casino license
Type B Casino License
A type A hotel is a large casino that offers no gaming restrictions. This type of casino can only be created in metropolitan areas with a population of at least one million.

On the contrary, type B casinos are those of the resort. For this type of operator, the minimum bet is CHF 25 and the maximum payout is CHF 25,000.

Hotel Complexes
There are two hotel complexes in the rest of the world, whose games account for a large part of the total revenue: Sun City in South Africa and Atlantis Paradise Island in the Bahamas. Both are run by South African businessman Sol Kerzner.

Casino Games (and Circle)

The very principle of a casino is to bet money on a random "event". Practices and games vary widely from country to country. This chapter aims to provide a general idea of the main games, and to refer to other more detailed articles on each game.

Ball games
The 2000 or Traditional Boule (with the Ratche)
La Roulette : which exists in many forms such as French, American, Mexican roulette…
Multicolour (circle game)

Card Games
We distinguish so-called "matching" games where players lose when the casino wins, and so-called "circle" games where players play against each other. The casino then generates profits by "taxing" the players' winnings.

Blackjack (matching game)
The Pok 21 or Blackjack Parisian Style (circle game)
Texas Hold'em (Circle Game)
Caribbean Stud Poker
The Baccarat
The Punto bank
The Thirty-Four
Battle or War Game
Ultimate Poker
Let it Ride
The President

Dice games
The Craps
Chuck has Luck
The Sic Bo
The Yam's (also called Yahtzee)
The Farkle (played in the United States)

Pai Gow dominos
Big Six Wheel or Fortune Wheel

Sporting Paris
In addition, it is possible to bet on horse racing or sports events in casinos in the United States.

Casino Trades

There are many specific professions in the casino world. The names of these occupations can be given to women, since no functions are reserved for men.

Game tables
The dealer is responsible for taking and paying bets. He is the only employee to participate directly in the games either by drawing cards or by activating the cylinder in the ball games.

The game leader or party leader ensures the proper functioning of the tables placed under his responsibility, ensuring that the regulations in force are applied by all the players and providing the quality of the services expected. The table manager works in consultation and complementarity with the various services. He normally supervises one to two tables, his mission is to check the proper play of the games and the work of the dealers. He is responsible for the table accounting (flows of chips, notes) and records the client's game movements (loss, win, number of hands played, bets).

The floor manager or supervisor or inspector is in charge of the table heads. He is normally responsible for three or four game tables and ensures that the games are run properly and honestly. It checks and controls all transactions at the table. He is also responsible for game accounting.

The pit boss is responsible for a grouping of several tables or a casino area and is responsible for the florists. This position exists only in casinos with a large number of tables and different pitches.

The room manager or operating manager is responsible for the game room.

Slot Machines
The technician ensures the proper operation and maintenance of the machines. He is also responsible for filling the machines (in chips) under the responsibility of a frame. A service key allows the player to call him. It helps customers orient themselves in the electronic machinery park, explains how it works.

The supervisor controls and monitors the operation of the machines in terms of accounting. He oversees the payment of jackpots. In organizations that still require manual fillings of chips or tokens, supervisors are sometimes supervised by a supervisor.

Other trades
The cashier handles all cash transactions. The cashier welcomes customers, informs them about the activities and events in progress in the casino and carries out all cash transactions related to the specificity of his sector (soles or table games) and provided for by the gaming regulations. It checks customer identities, exchanges chips, tokens or tokens for cash and vice versa. The cashier must be vigilant in all cash transactions and incorporate the notion of financial responsibility into his business. It controls the opening and closing of the caisses, and supplies the distributors. The cashier keeps the official register and checks the cash register every day. If necessary, he will lead and lead a team of cashiers.

The Customer Relationship Manager, usually a member of the Games Management Committee, is the preferred contact of clients both inside and outside the Casino. Its role is to maintain a lasting relationship of trust with customers, to coordinate the reception, comfort and well-being of players. He organizes tailor-made stays for clients and, knowing the tastes of the clients, he offers them all year round events (concerts, evenings, promotions, etc.). He is responsible for the invitation budgets and decides on customer offers (restaurant, hotel, limousine, etc.). By his charisma he is an indispensable figure and often considered the soul of a casino. He usually accompanies the manager of the establishment at events to represent the casino. It may be necessary to temporarily replace the latter. In some small casinos, this role is added to the description of the position of head of establishment (or his assistant).

The Customer Assistant will ensure the comfort of the players in the casino. At the request of the client, he makes reservations (spa, concerts, disco, restaurant…) and works closely with the client manager. It serves as an assistant (or concierge) for players: organizes car transfers, game explanations, various orders, watches the drinks in the room, offers guests to participate in the ephemeral and raffle animations, etc.

The security officer ensures the proper functioning of the casino and the safety of customers and employees.

Game Dependence

People who take part in these games can become highly addicted to or addicted to them. This psychopathology is called the pathological game. Casinos may have staff with the ability to take care of and guide gambling addicts and advise them on how to take care of them (e.g., apply for a casino ban, use support associations or consult specific psychologists).(civilized).

Casino Argot and Anglicism

In Europe, French remains the language of prestigious European squares. However, casino users may sometimes use terms originating in Nevada and having French equivalents:

low roller means a player with small bets, in the order of a few dollars;

high roller means a player with large bets of a few thousand dollars;

whale means player with very large bets ranging from a few hundred thousand to several million dollars per day of play. The big complexes of Las Vegas, Macao and Monte Carlo do everything to get the privilege of making them play. They are the source of significant profits because statistically, they will lose some of their bets. The hotels do not hesitate to provide a private plane and their best hotel suites to bring them. When a person is able to lose such daily amounts, everything else can be taken care of by the casino, however, not everyone can take the risk of attracting such players, since the probability of them winning up to their bets exists;

Flambeur is a client with a less disciplined game and who plays with passion and without much thought. These clients' play time is often low and generates rapid losses (speed loss) or, on the contrary, rapid gains.

High Deno or Low Deno means a slot machine with a high or low "name". These allow the client to find a machine with gambling consistent with the money available to him/her. The so-called "high deno" machines require casinos large enough to offer sufficient consideration in case of a customer's winnings. The winnings will be proportional to the bet made and therefore the casino increasing its names on the machines is at considerable risk. According to the casinos, a "high deno" can range from a 2 € scale to machines exceeding 500 € at a time.

speed loss : see flame.

The Casino in the Performances

Plastic Arts
He Ridotto by Francesco Guardi, 1755, Ca' Rezzonico.

It is located in the heart of the city, in the heart of the city, near the famous Piazza San Marco.

Casino (Il Ridotto) by Pietro Longhi, before 1785.

Spielbank in Monte Carlo by Christian Ludwig Bokelmann, 1884.

At the roulette table by Edvard Munch, 1892.

The Casino Games Room by Jean Béraud, around 1900.

At the roulette of the Monte-Carlo casino by Sem, around 1910.

Dinner at the casino by Gaston de La Touche, before 1913.

At the casino in Deauville by Kees van Dongen, 1925.

The Casino de Nice at both vases by Raoul Dufy, around 1926.

The Beach of Dieppe facing the casino by Jacques-Émile Blanche, before 1942.

The Casino by Georges Gaudion, before 1942.

At the Monte-Carlo casino by Gustave Moïse, before 1955.

At the casino by Moreno Pincas, around 1991.

Slot Machine Queen by Shelly Wilkerson, about 2011.

At the Film Industry
The Fraudster's novel (1936)

Shanghai Gesture (1941)

Casablanca (1942)

Macao, the Hell of the Game (1942) from Maurice Dekobra's novel

Casino Royale (1954)

Crown Hand (1955)

The Unknown in Las Vegas (1960)

The Bay of Angels (1963)

Casino Royale (1967)

Flamebeers (1974) Lost in America (1985)

Rain Man (1988)

Sister Act (1992)

Casino (1995)

Croupier (1998)

Ocean's Eleven (2001), remake of The Unknown of Las Vegas

Cody Banks, Secret Agent (2003)

Casino Royale (remake, 2006)

Ocean's Thirteen (2007)

Las Vegas 21 (2008)

Players (2017)

In the TV series
Vegas (Vega$) (1978), 69 episodes with Robert Ulrich embodying a private detective.

Las Vegas (2003-2008), 106 episodes with James Caan playing the head of security in one of the city's largest casinos.

Ozark (2017- ), with Jason Bateman.

In the literature
Player, Fiodor Dostoyevski (1865)

Spies, make your games, Ian Fleming (1953)

Under pressure, Donald E. Westlake (1966)

Out of reach?, Emmanuel Carrère (1989)

The Moon was black, Michael Connelly (2000)

In music
The House of the Rising Sun, performed by the British rock band The Animals in 1964.

Video Games
Leisure Suit Larry : casinos are very present in the series. Larry starts the first game in the city of Lost Wages ("lost wages") and making enough money at the casino is a must. In the fifth opus, he must do the same with poker machines. Finally, in the seventh level, he has to play craps at the USS Bouncy Pacer Casino, but can cheat by rubbing dice with glass paper.

Grim Fandango : The hero Manny Calavera, based in Rubacava, becomes the manager of a casino bar, whose roulette he plays, especially to win the local police commissioner and keep his favour. Towards the end, he returns to his city, El Alamoual, which has become infested with casinos.

Cuphead : A casino is in the final world, a place to fight King Dice.

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